So we should all be able to type in our ideas and Save in this document. This can be our working outline, then as we find info that relates to each question we can type it in and cite APA, then we can work on bringing all the ideas together into a cohesive answer after we have enough supporting info type in. I am going to try to create a second page that can be the handout information.

1. Introduce the Theorist:
Loris Malaguzzi
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- Malaguzzi developed his theory and philosophy of early childhood education from his work in schools for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers over 30 years. (Malaguzzi, 1993, p. 9)
Born in Correggio in the province of Reggio Emilia, Malaguzzi was educated at the University of Urbino, where he gained a degree in pedagogy, and at the National Research Centre in Rome, where he was awarded a degree in psychology. Following the Allied liberation of Italy from fascist rule, in 1946 he became involved in the setting up of pre‐schools organized and run by parents in Reggio Emilia, and in 1950 he established the Municipal Psycho–Pedagogical Centre in which he practised as a psychologist until the 1970s. In 1980, working as a consultant for the Italian Ministry of Education, he founded the Gruppo Nazionale Nidi‐Infanzia (National Early Years Centre) in Reggio Emilia to promote child‐centred education, and went on to travel Europe and the United States promoting his approach to early years education. His travelling exhibition The Hundred Languages of Children (originally entitled If the Eye Jumps Over the Wall) was instrumental in bringing his educational philosophy to a wider audience of teachers and parents worldwide.
* middle school teacher and psychologist in Reggio Emilia district in Italy* founded early childhood approach that embodies equality and democracy between child and teacher* founded National Early Years Center* created traavelling expo The Hundred Languages of Children (see later quote)* credited as the founder of the Reggio Emilia approach which is a city run and sponsored approach to education for early childhood education from birth to six years Catherine- these bullets are from the same source as etc.

Read more: Loris Malaguzzi Biography - (1920–94), The Hundred Languages of Children, If the Eye Jumps Over the Wall - Child, Education, Reggio, Teacher, Emilia, and Hundred - StateUniversity

2. Describe Key Elements of His Perspective On Education:
- Inspired by Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky (Gandini, 1993, 5)
a. Value of Education (goals of education, skills & knowledge)
- Education focuses on each child, not in isolation but in relation to other children, the family, the teachers, and with the environment of the school, the community and the greater society. (Gandini, 1993, 5)
- Education is a triad - the children, the teachers, and the families (Malaguzzi, 1993, 9)
-A system of education based on relationships (Malaguzzi, 1993, 9)
- Parent participation is essential - day to day interactions, discussions of educational and psychological issues, and special events, excursions and celebrations (Gandini, 1993, 6)
-Home and school relationships are fundamental (Gilman, 25)

The Hundred Languages of Childhood

The child is made of one hundred.The child hasA hundred languagesA hundred handsA hundred thoughtsA hundred ways of thinkingOf playing, of speaking.A hundred always a hundredWays of listening of marveling of lovingA hundred joysFor singing and understandingA hundred worldsTo discoverA hundred worldsTo inventA hundred worldsTo dreamThe child hasA hundred languages(and a hundred hundred hundred more)But they steal ninety-nine.The school and the cultureSeparate the head from the body.They tell the child;To think without handsTo do without headTo listen and not to speakTo understand without joyTo love and to marvelOnly at Easter and ChristmasThey tell the child:To discover the world already thereAnd of the hundredThey steal ninety-nine.They tell the child:That work and playReality and fantasyScience and imaginationSky and earthReason and dreamAre thingsThat do not belong togetherAnd thus they tell the childThat the hundred is not thereThe child says: NO WAY the hundred is there--
Loris MalaguzziFounder of the Reggio Approach

What are the hundred languages of Children?

Symbolic languages, including drawing, sculpting, dramatic play, writing, painting are used to represent children’s thinking processes and theories. As children work through problems and ideas they are encouraged to depict their understanding using many different representations. As their thinking evolves they are encouraged to revisit their representation to determine if they are representative of their intent or if they require modification. Teachers and children work together towards an expressed intent.

b. Theory of Human Nature (is human unique or compared to other species)
-Image of the child: "all children have preparedness, potential, curiosity, and interest in constructing thier learning, in engaging in social interaction and in negotiating with everything the environment brings to them." (Gandini, 1993, 5)
-Child is rich in potential, strong, powerful, competent and connected to adults and other children (Malaguzzi, 1993, 10)
-Children have the right to be recognized as subjects of individual, legal, civil, and social rights; as both source and constructors of their own experience, and thus active participants in the organization of their identities, abilities, and autonomy, through relationships and interaction with their peers, with adults, with ideas, with objects, and with real and imaginary events of intercommunicating worlds. All this while establishing the fundamental premises for creating “better citizens of the world” and improving the quality of human interaction, also credits children, and each individual child, with an extraordinary wealth of inborn abilities and potential, strength and creativity. Irreversible suffering and impoverishment of the child is caused when this fact is not acknowledged.
- Llisten, observe interact and learn from the child.

c. Theory of Learning (what is learning)
- Learning emerges from the children's experiences - in the process of each activity (Gandini, 1993, 7)
-Learning is interactive: constructivist, relationships among all participants, spirit of cooperation (Malaguzzi, 1993, 9)
- Learning occurs through questioning, reflection, research, and adaptation (Malaguzzi, 1993, 11)
-We shape ourselves through our exchanges with our environment, peers, adults, and symbols (Gilman, 25)
  • Constructivist approach- children learn by doing and create their own understanding through investigation.
  • Project based long term studies that can last from one week to the whole year.
  • Influenced by Bruner, Vygotsky, Erikson, Piaget and Vygotsky
* Many ways to represent knowledge in print, art, drama, music, shadow play, puppets, etc.

that education should not be defined in terms of what the state or the teacher decides should be taught; that it should not be subjected to categorization in the form of curriculum subjects; but that it should arise from a response to the child's creativity and search for meaning
d. Theory of Transmission (who is the teacher and learner)
- children know what adults value and think is important, no rewards are given, deep satisfaction and joy comes from the effort itself, as well as the result (Katz, 1990, 12).
-Teachers do not underestimate the children's "capacities for sustained effort and their abilities" (Katz, 1990, 12).
-Teachers provide materials for open-ended discovery and problem solving (Gilman, 24)
-Teachers listen and observe children closely, ask questions, discover children's ideas, hypotheses, and theories. They also provide occasions for discovery and learning (Gandini, 1993, 6)
- Teachers document children's words and actions to make parents aware of their children's experiences, to allow teachers to understand children better and to evaluate teachers' own work, to make children aware that their work is valued, for pleasure, and to enhance the process of learning by both the child and teacher (Gandini, 1993, 8)
- Physical environment considered a "teacher" in and of itself - thus teachers take time to plan how best to care for it and make it interesting and pleasant for all concerned; photographs of children at work on projects are displayed where both children and families can appreciate them; transcriptions of comments and questions the children raise in investigations are hung alongside their work, from this they can recollect experiences, feelings and ideas (Katz, 1990, 11).
-The environment encourages ecounters, communication and relationships; the arrangement of structures, objects and activities encourages choices, problem solving, and discoveries in the process of learning (Gandini, 1993, 6)
-The Reggio teacher allows the children to:
  1. Ask their own questions, and generate their own hypotheses and to test them.
  2. To explore and generate many possibilities both affirming and contradictory. She welcomes contradictions as a venue for exploring, discussing and debating.
  3. She provides opportunity to use symbolic languages to represent thoughts and hypothesis.
  4. She provides opportunity for the children to communicate their ideas to others.
  5. She offers children, through the process of revisiting the opportunity to reorganize concepts, ideas, thoughts and theories to construct new meaning.
  6. She is a keen observer, documenter, and partner in the learning process.
  8. -The environment incorporates multiple different uses for the development of learning. Stars in the sky can be used to discover what gas is (science) and introduce an interest in Space and the sky. It can provide language development through learning new vocabulary and reading books all about stars and the planets. Children can learn fine motor skills through painting, drawing, and cutting out their own stars. Counting the stars can develop math skills and children telling their own stories about stars can create magical moments of social development, while children practice cognition and understanding of their world around them. This “star” example explains another main point in the Reggio curriculum, where “long-term projects are common, and cooperative learning is encouraged” (Jacobson, 2007, p. 10). All projects are streamlined together over many weeks to months, or until the children’s interest shifts to another topic. “Long-term projects enhanced by technology can promote significant growth in children’s thinking and social development” (Bauer & Hong, 2001, p.181).

*Teacher is a "researcher, data gatherer, the learner, the strategic contributor to the child's capacity to learn (Hertzog, Nancy 2001, Reflections and Impressions from Reggio Emilia: "It's Not about Art!"
*Teacher is not just an imparter of knowledge
  • Teachers create portfolios of learning
  • Teachers do not have a set curriculum manuel or achievement tests
  • Emphasis on art evidenced in atelierista in each school. This person helps the children investigate through artistic medium. These are carefully chosen and displayed.
  • Teachers allow mistakes in learning and do not define the end of a project
"Art is how the children communicate and the product is how the teachers listen."

3. Explain how theory is visible or observable today:
In public schools:
At S.C.O.P.E. Academy (Cathy):

  • Thousands visit Reggio Emilia, Italy to view schools, centers and the community in order to reflect and bring back philosophies of education to their country of origin
  • Countless US preschools have been influenced by this theory
  • Porfolio and project based learning can be readily seen throughout the US.
4. Provide evidence of effectiveness (cite and provide compelling research background):
Child Development Center observations? (Debra) * I will be going there on MOnday Sorry so late but will be able to discuss it at class to give more details. I will share that they engage in meaningful reason for the learning to occur- writing your name comes more naturally when you have a reason to write it , letters make sense when there is a book you want to read.
  • The goal of the Reggio Emilia Approach is that children embrace the "big ideas" about life. Can the value of investigation, problem solving, dialogue, social interaction be empirically qualified?
  • The lack of data is a criticism of this theory

5. Describe the theory's influence on Early Childhood Special Education:
-In Reggio Emilia, Italy, children with disabilities are given first priority for enrollment in schools (Gandini, 1993, 4)
-Inclusion has the potential to reduce fear, build respect and understanding based on the powerful image of the child - children with special needs are regarded as worthy (Gilman, 23-24)
-Value child as a child with capabilities and interest rather than as a child in need (Gilman, 25)
-Children are integrated "mindfully" with the support of parents and careful observation of teachers, aides are provided, and typically just one special needs child in a group (limit adults in the room, so not to disturb children's abitlity to form a community) (Gilman, 24)
- Parents know their child best and what may be their needs - construct the essential partnership for child's development to occur (Gilman, 26)
- Documentation and thoughtful recording of projects reveals how children grow and develop and shows children their work is valued, thus children with special needs benefit and observations of their motor, language, congnitive, and emotional skills. (Gilman, 28)
-Teachers create a welcoming environment where participation and communication are encouraged - emphasis on abilities helps to meet individual needs (Gilman, 29)
- In the Reggio Emilia Emphasizes that all children can be successful, which supports including children with special needs. Focuses on meeting the individula needs of children, and the flexibilty of the approach to teaching allows children with a variety of learning styles to fully participate. Emphasizes teacher refelction and ongoing documentation of children's progress and work.-(
=6. Provide in class/Hands on Activity to illuminate the theory:
Idea: have class complete an open-ended activity, give some students a disibility and others will be typical peers
Have them think about: what strengths do you bring to your work in this activity?
How do the children with disabilities benefit?
How do the typical children benefit?
  • Children have "special rights" not "special needs" therfore children with disabilities are seen as equally poerful learners and investigators


Gandini, L. (1993). Fundamentals of the reggio emilia approach to early childhood education. Young Children, 49(1), 4-8.
Gilman, S. (n.d.). Including the child with special needs: Learning from reggio emilia. Theory into Practice, 46(1), 23-31.
Katz, L. G. (1990). Impressions of reggio emilia preschools. Young Children, 45(6), 11-12.
Malaguzzi, L. (1993). For an education based on relationships. Young Children, 49(1), 9-11.
June 1, 2007. September 16,2011
Grisham Brown, J. L., Hemmeter, M. L., & Pretti-Frontczak, K. L. (2005)
. Blended practices for teaching
young children in inclusive settings
. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing Company.